The surgical removal of fallopian tubes and ovaries is termed as a salpingo-oophorectomy. Removal of one ovary and fallopian tube is called a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Whereas, removal of both the ovaries and fallopian tubes is termed as bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
Necessity of performing
unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is indicated to treat a variety of conditions like ovarian cancer, endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, tumors, cysts, ovarian torsion, and pelvic infections. Sometimes, healthy ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed to prevent ovarian cancer in high risk women. This is known as a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery is highly effective in lowering the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. A unilateral procedure addresses ovarian cancer as well as ovarian cysts, benign tumors, abscesses or ectopic pregnancy that fail to respond to nonsurgical treatment. The unilateral approach preserves ovarian function which is essential for women of childbearing age.
Salpingo-oophorectomy can be performed by laparoscopy, mini-laparotomy, laparotomy, and colpotomy.
Laparoscopy -Carbon dioxide gas is injected into the abdominal cavity to enhance visibility and accessibility. Three small incisions are made to insert a slender, lighted laparoscope, and other specialized instruments to locate and remove the ovary and fallopian tube.
Minilaparotomy - Incision is made in the lower abdomen to provide direct access for the removal of the ovary and the tube.
Laparotomy - A large horizontal or a vertical incision is made on the lower abdomen to remove an ovarian cyst, tumor or scar tissue from prior surgeries.
Colpotomy - The ovary and tube are removed through a surgical incision in the vagina.